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Hemoglobin (Hb) disorders affect nearly 7% of the world's population. Globally, around 400,000 babies are born annually with sickle cell disease (SCD), primarily in sub-Saharan Africa where morbidity and mortality rates are high. Screening, early diagnosis, and monitoring are not widely accessible due to technical challenges and cost. We hypothesized that multispectral imaging will allow sensitive hemoglobin variant identification in existing affordable paper-based Hb electrophoresis. To test this hypothesis, we developed the first integrated point-of-care multispectral Hb variant test: Gazelle-Multispectral. Here, we evaluated the accuracy of Gazelle-Multispectral for Hb variant newborn screening in 265 newborns with known hemoglobin variants including hemoglobin A (Hb A), hemoglobin F (Hb F), hemoglobin S (Hb S) and hemoglobin C (Hb C). Gazelle-Multispectral detected levels of Hb A, Hb F, Hb S, and Hb C/E/A2, demonstrated high correlations with the results reported by laboratory gold standard high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at Pearson Correlation Coefficient = 0.97, 0.97, 0.93, and 0.95. Gazelle-Multispectral demonstrated accuracy of 96.8% in subjects of 0–3 days, and 96.9% in newborns. The ability to obtain accurate results on newborn samples suggest that Gazelle-Multispectral can be suitable for large-scale newborn screening and for diagnosis of SCD in low resource settings.


genetic hemoglobin disorders, multispectral imaging, newborn screening, point-of-care diagnostics, sickle cell disease

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R44HL140739; R41HL151015; R01HL133574; 1U54HL143541; T32HL134622; K25HL159358; R41DK119048


National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI); National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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Hematology Commons



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