Mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) show progression through stages reflective of human pathology. Proteomics identification of temporal and sex-linked factors driving AD-related pathways can be used to dissect initiating and propagating events of AD stages to develop biomarkers or design interventions. In the present study, we conducted label-free proteome measurements of mouse hippocampus tissue with variables of time (3, 6, and 9 months), genetic background (5XFAD versus WT), and sex (equal males and females). These time points are associated with well-defined phenotypes with respect to the following: Aβ42 plaque deposition, memory deficits, and neuronal loss, allowing correlation of proteome-based molecular signatures with the mouse model stages. Our data show 5XFAD mice exhibit increases in known human AD biomarkers as amyloid-beta peptide, APOE, GFAP, and ITM2B are upregulated across all time points/stages. At the same time, 23 proteins are here newly associated with Alzheimer's pathology as they are also dysregulated in 5XFAD mice. At a pathways level, the 5XFAD-specific upregulated proteins are significantly enriched for DNA damage and stress-induced senescence at 3-month only, while at 6-month, the AD-specific proteome signature is altered and significantly enriched for membrane trafficking and vesicle-mediated transport protein annotations. By 9-month, AD-specific dysregulation is also characterized by significant neuroinflammation with innate immune system, platelet activation, and hyperreactive astrocyte-related enrichments. Aside from these temporal changes, analysis of sex-linked differences in proteome signatures uncovered novel sex and ADassociated proteins. Pathway analysis revealed sexlinked differences in the 5XFAD model to be involved in the regulation of well-known human AD-related processes of amyloid fibril formation, wound healing, lysosome biogenesis, and DNA damage. Verification of the discovery results by Western blot and parallel reaction monitoring confirm the fundamental conclusions of the study and poise the 5XFAD model for further use as a molecular tool for understanding AD.
Molecular & Cellular Proteomics
© 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc on behalf of American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
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Temporal and Sex-Linked Protein Expression Dynamics in a Familial Model of Alzheimer’s Disease. Blasco Tavares Pereira Lopes, Filipa et al. Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, Volume 21, Issue 9, 100280