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Study finds link between poor housing conditions and kindergarten readiness. Over time, living in substandard housing conditions leads to lower literacy scores for children entering kindergarten. Living in a home that is owned by a speculator, is tax delinquent, or is in foreclosure contributes to lower literacy scores among children entering kindergarten. Living within 500 feet of distressed properties lowers literacy scores among kindergarteners; living in homes farther away (up to 1500 feet) has a smaller, though still negative, effect. Living in a distressed home (either in poor condition or in foreclosure) is associated with a higher risk for child maltreatment, residential instability, and elevated lead levels, all of which affect literacy scores.
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Claudia Coulton, Robert L Fischer, Francisco Garcia-Cobian, Richter Seok-Joo Kim, Youngmin Cho. (2016). Housing crisis leaves lasting imprint on children in Cleveland. MacArthur Foundation. https://www.macfound.org/media/files/hhm_brief_-_housing_crisis_children_in_cleveland.pdf