Author ORCID Identifier

Noa T. Kraus

Scott Emory Moore

Elliane Irani

Document Type


Publication Date



Objective: The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the existing literature on the associations between historic redlining and modern-day health outcomes across the lifespan. Method: This review searched PubMed and CINAHL for peer-reviewed, data-based articles examining the relationship between historic redlining and any health outcome. Articles were appraised using the JBI critical appraisal checklist. The results were synthesized using a narrative summary approach. Results: Thirty-six articles were included and focused on various health outcomes, including cardiovascular outcomes, breast cancer incidence and mortality, firearm injury or death, birth-related outcomes, and asthma outcomes. Most of the included articles (n = 31; 86%) found significant associations between historic redlining and adverse health outcomes such as increased cardiovascular disease, higher rates of preterm births, increased cancer incidence, reduced survival time after breast cancer diagnosis, and increased firearm injury incidence. Discussion: This review demonstrates the persistent effect of historic redlining on individuals’ health. Public health nurses should recognize redlining as a form of structural racism when caring for affected communities and should advocate for policies and programs that advance health equity. Nurse researchers should develop and test multilevel interventions to address systemic racism and improve health outcomes in communities affected by redlining.


health, health equity, healthcare disparities, neighborhood characteristics, racism, systemic racism

Publication Title

Public Health Nursing


© 2023 The Authors. Public Health Nursing published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.


10.1111/phn.13276" data-hide-no-mentions="true">
10.1111/phn.13276" data-hide-zero-citations="true" data-style="small_circle">

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