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Black and Latinx youth are disproportionately affected by violence in the United States. Hospital-based violence intervention programs (HVIPs) have emerged as an effective response to this epidemic; however, participation rates remain low. This study aimed to identify facilitators and barriers to recruitment and engagement amongst black and Latinx youth from the perspective of HVIP staff. Employing a phenomenological approach, a purposive sample of key informants was recruited. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews lasting approximately 90 min were conducted with representatives (N = 12) from five HVIPs in U.S. cities across the Midwest and Northeast, making up 15% of all HVIPs in the United States. Each interview was recorded and transcribed verbatim. The research team employed rigorous content analysis of the data. Three themes and subsequent categories resulted from the analysis: (1) Interpersonal/Relational Facilitators (building rapport; connecting with youth; enhancing the teachable moment; building relational health); (2) Structural/Systemic Barriers (lack of reinforcement; difficulties connecting after discharge from the hospital; hospital workflow; institutional challenges); (3) Structural/Systemic Facilitators (embedding the HVIP; trauma-informed practices and policies). Given the limited research on black and Latinx youth and the disproportionate rate of violent injuries amongst these groups, an evidence-based systematic approach to engage youth is essential to promote health equity. The findings from this study suggest that there are several steps that HVIPs and hospitals can take to enhance their recruitment and engagement of youth and their families.


black youth, gunshot wounds, hospital-based intervention program, Latinx youth, paediatric, violence, violence

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Health and Social Care in the Community





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University Hopsital's Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License



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