Author ORCID Identifier

Umut A. Gurkan

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Embryonic stem cells ESCs are pluripotent with multilineage potential to differentiate into virtually all cell types in the organism and thus hold a great promise for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. In vitro differentiation of ESCs starts with a phase known as embryoid body EB formation. EB mimics the early stages of embryogenesis and plays an essential role in ESC differentiation in vitro. EB uniformity and size are critical parameters that directly influence the phenotype expression of ESCs. Various methods have been developed to form EBs, which involve natural aggregation of cells. However, challenges persist to form EBs with controlled size, shape, and uniformity in a reproducible manner. The current hanging-drop methods are labor intensive and time consuming. In this study, we report an approach to form controllable, uniform-sized EBs by integrating bioprinting technologies with the existing hanging-drop method. The approach presented here is simple, robust, and rapid. We present significantly enhanced EB size uniformity compared to the conventional manual hanging-drop method.

Publication Title







NIHR21 Grant No. AI087107; Young Investigator Award; U.S. Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity Cooperative Agreement Nos. DAMD17-02-2-0006, W81XWH-07-2-0011, and W81XWH-09-2-0001


National Institutes of Health (NIH); W.H. Coulter Foundation; Center for Integration of Medicine and Innovative Technology; U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC); Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC)


© 2011 American Institute of Physics. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and AIP Publishing. This article appeared in Feng Xu, BanuPriya Sridharan, ShuQi Wang, Umut Atakan Gurkan, Brian Syverud, and Utkan Demirci , "Embryonic stem cell bioprinting for uniform and controlled size embryoid body formation", Biomicrofluidics 5, 022207 (2011) and may be found at .



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